After World War II there was a general belief in rebuilding society in Europe. The most important feeling was, that we had to do this together.
This is the basis of that special feeling of solidarity, that people shared with each other, It was not about personal profits, but about the general welfare.
Consequently the economics of Keynes were the dominant approach in the period 1945 -1980.
Keynesian economics is a theory that says the government should increase demand to boost growth.
Keynesians believe consumer demand is the primary driving force in an economy. As a result, the theory supports expansionary fiscal policy.
Expansionary fiscal policy is when the government expands the money supply in the economy using budgetary tools
to either increase spending or cut taxes, both of which provide consumers and businesses with more money to spend.
Its main tools are government spending on infrastructure, unemployment benefits, and education. A drawback is that overdoing Keynesian policies increases inflation.
We are a philosophy class here, and not a class in economics, so let's ignore details and try to see the quintessence here.
As I understand it, the government uses its income from taxes to steer the ins and outs of society for the benefit of everyone.
And that is the critical point....these taxes. The painful characteristic of these taxes was, that they were progressive.
That meant, that, as was a slogan in (I hardly dare to use the word) socialist politics: The strongest shoulders should carry the heaviest loads....
This idea was at the basis of the development of the welfare state as we know it in Europe with, as a result,
medic care for everyone, independent of income, for instance, or free access to any level of education. If you couldn't afford it, you were entitled to government grants.
In 1960 Friedrich Hayek, we discussed him in previous lectures, published "The Constitution of Liberty" in 1960.
Just to mention, from his past he was a he was a fierce opponent of the communist planned economy.
And from that point of view he also was opposed to Keynesian economic and in 1960 he stated, that the concept of 'social justice', the root of the belief in social solidarity, was a myth.
For Hayek, the freedom to live at your own discretion on your own land was the ultimate good, provided you don't violate the rights of others:
the credo of the ultimate social and economical individualist and the end of social solidarity. And keep in mind, this was just 1960.
Of course nothing is made for eternity, so neither was Keynesian economics. There were problems with unemployment and inflation in the 1970s.
I myself experienced this personally. I had to write more than 120 letters of application to finally get a job after my graduation from the university.
And then came the turning point.It was 1980. In the world of politics we got Ronald Reagan and Margret Thatcher.
In the world of economics we got Rose and Milton Friedman. They already published "Capitalism and Freedom" in 1962.
In 1980 they published "Free to Choose". The titles of their books are already telling. If not to you, we'll discuss this in the next lecture...
Thank you for your attention....
[13:20] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): thank you Herman
[13:21] herman Bergson: ohh..one thought that comes up to me now.....
[13:21] Al Michigan: /making lotsa notes
[13:22] herman Bergson: all these people that plead for this individualistic liberalism and capitalism...Ayn Rand, Hayek, Friedman....alll refugees from communist countries....
[13:22] herman Bergson: A coincidence???
[13:24] Al Michigan: i think their opinion was helping some ppl, that wanted less taxes
[13:24] herman Bergson: Yes yes.....
[13:24] Max Chatnoir: When they all don't take into account are real differences in opportunity.
[13:24] Al Michigan: and that these ppl shoved their opinions in the mouths
[13:24] Al Michigan: abusing them for their own motives
[13:24] PearlsOh: It's weird that capitalism has ended up as controlling as communism, Google & the like are so rich they can call shots with governments and social engineer us with punishment and reward, reminds me of Stalin and Soviets
[13:24] herman Bergson: But my main point of today is that we have LOST a legacy instead of receiving one from the 20th century here....
[13:25] herman Bergson: Yes PearsOH...that is an issue
[13:25] Max Chatnoir: Keynes?
[13:25] Al Michigan: freedom?
[13:26] herman Bergson: What we have lost is social solidarity.....to stand for each other
[13:26] Al Michigan: yes
[13:26] Max Chatnoir: Ah, yes.
[13:26] herman Bergson: Today we seem to stand only for ourselves
[13:26] PearlsOh: Individualism is kind of fake, it's never real. Sometimes they let the facade slip & sometimes they keep it up, we're all enslaved in various ways to the systems
[13:26] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): Ayn Rand started this as I get it, the creator of the egoism era
[13:27] herman Bergson: She was indeed important Bejiita
[13:27] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): egoism and grreed + the rich companies avoiding tax by placing their moey on Cayman islands or some other place
[13:27] Al Michigan: especially with this globalists, who will use and abuse everyone and everything to reach this goal, getting rid off any form off nationalism or local culture, the make ppl helpless,especially now they started to censure the Internet
[13:27] PearlsOh: yes, they're the commies, Al, disgusting people
[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and also the governents including here in sweden wasting them on things like 500 million on consulting for a hospital (Karolinska) that is not even built to code in any way
[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): a black hole for our tax money
[13:28] Max Chatnoir: Recently I saw an article (Sorry, I don't remember who wrote it) arguing for having more babies to support expansionist economics.
[13:28] herman Bergson: At this moment, my believe is that the world is mainly ruled by multinationals and money
[13:29] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hmm
[13:29] Al Michigan: rump is waging war with money, tru...
[13:29] Al Michigan: trump
[13:29] herman Bergson: He is just a bussinessman...
[13:29] Al Michigan: or,... are we ruled by the billionairs
[13:29] herman Bergson: hello Belle
[13:29] oola Neruda: i just finished reading ...MINDFUCKED.... Steve Bannon is big at the beginning and still at the end.... pushing White supremecy... ....... and he is very much....in a planned way....behind the division of people.... as a plan... A PLAN..... CAREFULLY WORKED OUT
[13:29] Al Michigan: you know the first trillionair is upcoming?
[13:30] herman Bergson: BINGO...all seats occupied :-)
[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): running the US like a big company and potting the world on brink of WW3 by irritating dangerous guys around the world
[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): like Kim and Putin
[13:30] PearlsOh: Herman do you think censorship and enforced social control is about money? Where does it come from
[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): he is playing with lions
[13:30] Al Michigan: huh,. no evil words off respected world leaders!
[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): (shudders)
[13:30] Al Michigan: i agree , particle
[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hmm
[13:31] Al Michigan: he plays with smart tigers
[13:31] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): at least all seems stable, for now
[13:31] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but
[13:31] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ....
[13:31] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): will it remain so
[13:31] herman Bergson: Hold on...:-)
[13:31] herman Bergson: What censorship do you mean PearlsOh
[13:32] PearlsOh: People being punished, ie fired and so on for stuff like "racism " and "sexism"
[13:32] Al Michigan: herman, thee internet giants are censoring conservative sounds
[13:32] herman Bergson: I don't see any relation with money...only with moral values
[13:33] herman Bergson: Are tehy, Al?
[13:33] herman Bergson: they
[13:33] Al Michigan: yes they are big time!
[13:33] PearlsOh: who's controlling these morals? I know people accused of these perceived thought crimes who didn't do anything wrong.
[13:33] herman Bergson: Wait....
[13:33] Max Chatnoir: I don't see that. They seem willing to take anybody's ad money.
[13:33] herman Bergson: YEs Max...
[13:33] Al Michigan: more and more news outlets off right wing views are being censored
[13:34] herman Bergson: but I think we have to to discriminate here between the USA and Europe....
[13:34] oola Neruda: bannon and cambridge annalytical..... have been very carefully making changes ... to get more division
[13:34] PearlsOh: well we're global, it is general, but maybe USA has more freedom left?
[13:34] herman Bergson: For instance...white supremacy is a disease in the US...hardly there in Europe as attitude
[13:35] oola Neruda: we are loosing it
[13:35] herman Bergson: Well...you lost worldwide moral leadership already indeed, I'd say
[13:35] Max Chatnoir: I was surprised to see how much of it is still around.
[13:35] oola Neruda: nods
[13:35] CB Axel: There may not be white supremacy in Europe, but there is nationalism.
[13:36] Al Michigan: no i see indeed there is a massive censoring wave coming up in Europe, because all rightwing alternative news wi ll be impossible in future, and so is even conservative news in the usa.
[13:36] herman Bergson: Yes CB and racism too....but not in the Amrican way
[13:36] PearlsOh: What's wrong with Nationalism?
[13:36] Al Michigan: if you make a posting with the tag: vote for trump, you ll be banned immedeastely.
[13:36] Max Chatnoir: Where?
[13:36] herman Bergson: Who banns you Al???
[13:36] CB Axel: I personally don't think we should censor white supremacists. I want to know who those people are so I can avoid them.
[13:36] Al Michigan: me/
[13:36] Al Michigan: it is now!
[13:37] PearlsOh: Someone, what's wrong with Nationalism?
[13:37] herman Bergson: I agree CB...let them show themselves
[13:37] herman Bergson: Depends PearlsOh....
[13:37] CB Axel: It's wrong, Pearl, when it'd "our nation only and all the others can go to hell."
[13:37] oola Neruda: correct
[13:37] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hmm
[13:37] CB Axel: We all need each other and no one nation should be all powerful.
[13:37] Al Michigan: i have been exploring the alt right sites, and the alt light sites. I do not see these ppl as more dangerous as antifa ppl, or so called justice warrioirs or antifa ppl.
[13:38] PearlsOh: Why, CB, why can't people have their countries?
[13:38] Belle (bellecharbon): Nationalism is a philosophy that pits nations against each other, where globalism encourages cooperation to solve global problems.
[13:38] herman Bergson: If Nationalism is used to create a WE against THEM atmosphere, then it is populist manipulation
[13:38] CB Axel: Because we're all on one Earth.
[13:38] Max Chatnoir: Yes, by creating fear of the not-us.
[13:38] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): indeed, its a recipie for starting wars
[13:38] oola Neruda: manipulation....YES
[13:38] herman Bergson: You are more eloquent, Belle ^_^
[13:38] CB Axel: Pitting one nation against all the others helps no one.
[13:39] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): nope
[13:39] PearlsOh: How does it pit people against each other? Why not let people embrace their cultures, what is this push to force everyone to become one culture?
[13:39] PearlsOh: Isn't that anti life
[13:39] PearlsOh: and anti diversity?
[13:39] Al Michigan: but, i do not see that in reality, what i see is like India and Pakistan , but nationalistic countries. they have war..... but about beliefs.
[13:39] herman Bergson: We NEED this concept of solidarity....worldwide...but so far it is idealistic and utopian
[13:39] Al Michigan: not about culture.
[13:39] Al Michigan: iran and irak are very nationalistoic, and so is turkey
[13:39] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and they hate each other
[13:40] Al Michigan: but they fight about beliefs, the text off the holy koran
[13:40] PearlsOh: Why do we need to be a globalist world nation Herman, are aliens coming or something?
[13:40] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): its like nitroglycerine waiting to explode in an all out war
[13:40] PearlsOh: Why can't we be ourselves?
[13:40] CB Axel: I don't mind different cultures. I enjoy different cultures, but in the US people don't want to help other countries. They want only to help the US.
[13:40] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): indeed
[13:40] Max Chatnoir: I think the beliefs are just an excuse to get God's imprimatur on our side.
[13:41] Max Chatnoir: We are the best because God says so. right here.
[13:41] Al Michigan: cb axel, when did Mexico ever helped usa?
[13:41] CB Axel: Then when people from a poorer country, one that the US has made poorer, want to come to the US they get jailed.
[13:41] Al Michigan: or canada?
[13:41] Belle (bellecharbon): Just as one person balances their personal interests with the needs of others, taking care of ourselves first, then helping others--there needs to be a balance of countries thinking of themselves and others where i think nationalism is skewed
[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): to Trump for ex there is only USA and all other nations can go F*CK themselves
[13:41] herman Bergson: No PearlsOH, because the multinationals and our industries are destroying this world simply to satisfy their shareholders and not the stakeholders
[13:41] Al Michigan: or peru?
[13:41] oola Neruda: one of the strategies is to just keep people off guard.... get people upset then, before they get their act together... throw them off kilter again...with new mischief
[13:41] Al Michigan: or germany?
[13:41] Al Michigan: or china?
[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): that kind if thinking
[13:41] Al Michigan: or russia?
[13:41] Al Michigan: but what there is another thingy!
[13:42] PearlsOh: Yes globalism sucks, Herman, so maybe it is a good idea to fight the social engenering that is trying to make us all one culture
[13:42] PearlsOh: they just get more control that way
[13:42] Al Michigan: the black ppl have their home lands, that they claim, and the jews have their homeland that they claim, most ppl have their home land, that they claim, but when a white man in his own country say he want a home land too, where he is safe for the persecutions off other races, he is called a bigot, a racist and all, and that s not fair.
[13:43] CB Axel: I can't keep up with everyone talking at once, so I'm just going to sit out and read what you're all saying.
[13:43] herman Bergson: Take a moment to read Al's words
[13:43] oola Neruda: BRAVE NEW WORLD........1984
[13:43] oola Neruda: TWO BOOKS NOT TO BURN
[13:43] Al Michigan: i like to remember yo all, that the white ppl are the minority, world wide.
[13:43] PearlsOh: true, Al
[13:43] Max Chatnoir: The British Empire in its heyday had a LOT of homelands!
[13:44] Al Michigan: no max, it had only the UK
[13:44] herman Bergson frowns too
[13:44] PearlsOh: Are you wanting to punish White People for Britain, Max?
[13:44] Al Michigan: and that s al what they were left with when the stuff went south.
[13:44] herman Bergson: the homeland sounds like a kind of racial nationalism, AL?
[13:44] Al Michigan: where will the united nations go?
[13:44] Max Chatnoir: No, of course not. I was just thinking about what the white "homeland" might be?
[13:45] Belle (bellecharbon): Max is referring to the days of the British Empire which was global but colonial
[13:45] PearlsOh: What's wrong with having a homeland though Herman, why does it seem racist to you?
[13:45] herman Bergson: all of Europe perhaps, Max? :-)
[13:45] Max Chatnoir: Not just Europe.
[13:45] Al Michigan: nonono, what about the united states?
[13:45] herman Bergson: All the whites in the US came from Europe though
[13:45] Al Michigan: us ppl will not be welcome in europe.
[13:45] oola Neruda: YES
[13:46] Max Chatnoir: Yes.
[13:46] Max Chatnoir: We started as immigrants.
[13:46] Al Michigan: US ppl are not welcome in europ, the US culture is not ..
[13:46] Al Michigan: how you call it
[13:46] Al Michigan: it wont fit.
[13:46] Max Chatnoir: My family was irish and French.
[13:46] herman Bergson: A moment....
[13:46] Belle (bellecharbon): I've been to Europe and felt wlcome, of course not in the last few years
[13:46] herman Bergson: Let me clarify.....
[13:47] Max Chatnoir: I think they were running from the potato famine.
[13:47] Belle (bellecharbon): and religious persecution
[13:47] herman Bergson: The concept of homeland is a bit odd....I guess you'd better say, that people are entitled to their own CULTURE
[13:47] Belle (bellecharbon): and debt
[13:47] Max Chatnoir: If we hadn't had the revolutionary war, we'd still be Brits.
[13:47] Belle (bellecharbon): and because European nations wanted to establish colonies in the new world
[13:48] Max Chatnoir: Yes, that, too. :-)
[13:48] herman Bergson whispers: I am just puzzled by finding a homeland for white people :_0
[13:48] Al Michigan: yes herman, that is true, but it is translated in the land that had cultivated it. An American in Amsterdam, really getting close to the pp, will ralise the gap in culture is too big.
[13:48] PearlsOh: I don't get whats odd about having your own country?
[13:48] Max Chatnoir: Nothing, and pride in your culture is a good thing.
[13:49] Max Chatnoir: Just don't make it the only possible thing.
[13:49] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): indeed true Max
[13:49] herman Bergson: A country is just an historical creation with fictitious borders...a culture ignores borders
[13:49] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): embrace your culture but don't hate other ones
[13:49] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): culture
[13:49] Max Chatnoir: But I think we have drifted away from economics.
[13:49] Al Michigan: herman, every culture, every group off ppl has the right to claim his lands, to be his. why wont white ppl not have that right?
[13:49] CB Axel: There is no one homeland for blacks, either. There were many tribes in Africa, but Europeans went into Africa and formed nations that didn't take into consideration those tribes and their rights.
[13:49] PearlsOh: No an country is owned land
[13:49] PearlsOh: by a people
[13:49] Max Chatnoir: If we'd stayed in our country of origin, we'd all still be in Africa.
[13:50] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): thats also true
[13:50] herman Bergson: You are right, Max....
[13:50] herman Bergson: Nevertheless this is an interesting exchange of thoughts....
[13:50] Al Michigan: no max, i reject the ideas that we descend from africa, there is never found a proof off that ( the missing link,)
[13:50] herman Bergson: huh? Al?
[13:50] oola Neruda: in a recent group chat... about immigration.... i said that only the Native Americans were the real citizens here.... the comeback to that was I WAS BORN HERE... I AM A CITIZEN.... they did not get what i had to say......
[13:50] Max Chatnoir: mitochondrial DNA/
[13:51] herman Bergson: Exactly Max
[13:51] CB Axel: Europeans took a chunk of the middle east and just gave it to Israel. Now I want the Jews to have a safe place to live, but you can't just take someone else's land and say, "OK. Now this is someone else's homeland."
[13:51] Al Michigan: hihihi, but look at this dna!
[13:51] PearlsOh: That argument is a bit fake though, many don't buy it the Africa thing, and even if it was true,, what is this problem with people having their own countries, religions and cultures with out being forced to take in others they may not want?
[13:52] theo Velde is offline.
[13:52] herman Bergson: We still live in an it is US or THEM world indeed PearlsOh
[13:52] oola Neruda: yes... CB
[13:52] Belle (bellecharbon): If the Palestinians wanted peace more than anything, they are surrounded by Arabian countries hey could have peace in. The Jews have Israel and no place else to go, except possibly Arizona.
[13:52] CB Axel: Because all these nations are meaningless. They were all land stolen from others. The cultures were all mixed. We will, and should, continue to mix.
[13:53] PearlsOh: What's wrong with that thought Herman, the world isn't all peace, it is hostile.
[13:53] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): indeed CB and as u can see there have been constant war between Israel and Palestine whos land were taken from them
[13:53] Al Michigan: is it acceptable, to let like black ppl scream , let's kill some whites, but not let white ppl scream lets kill some black, while it is their own country? while at the same time let's kill some blacks is also allowed in black countries? but then again not allowed to say let s kill some blacks if you are white?
[13:53] Max Chatnoir: Yes, human history is full of invasions.
[13:53] Belle (bellecharbon): It is in the best interests of all the surrounding Arab countries to keep the Palestinians at war with Israel
[13:53] PearlsOh: Are you all saying the Palis can't fight the Jews?
[13:53] CB Axel: Fine, Belle. I'll just come and take your house so I have a place to live.
[13:54] Max Chatnoir: We're the only human species left.
[13:54] oola Neruda: agree CB
[13:54] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): were all the same indeed
[13:54] herman Bergson: I guess Max was right in the end...We AREN'T discussing economics anymore ^_^
[13:54] CB Axel: It's not acceptable for blacks to say let's kill whites. Where is that acceptable?
[13:54] PearlsOh: This no Nations stull has come about after ww2
[13:54] PearlsOh: it is malicious
[13:54] Al Michigan: but the Palestinians is an economic thing.
[13:54] herman Bergson: Hold on.....
[13:54] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but were still discussing the gt togethere thig we should all strive for instead of making conflicts
[13:55] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): get
[13:55] herman Bergson: Let's save our gunpowder for the next lecture :-)
[13:55] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hehe
[13:55] CB Axel: Maybe, Pearl, but we have had fewer wars worldwide since then.
[13:55] Max Chatnoir: Well, it kind of comes down to the money, doesn't it? It's the caliphate. Land is a power center.
[13:55] Al Michigan: because off the palestinians, the middle east stays un united, and therefore it is able to artificially give the dollar a value it otherwise would ve had
[13:55] PearlsOh: Don't you think forced integration is a source of comflict?
[13:55] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well I have an event coming up
[13:55] Al Michigan: hu, me line was full off mizzpellingz!
[13:56] Al Michigan: now i cannot even understand me self any more!
[13:56] herman Bergson: My friends.....I guess we didn't save the world today but came close...!
[13:56] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hhe
[13:56] CB Axel: Probably, but by embracing other cultures and letting them in and getting to know them will be more peaceful than dividing everyone into groups.
[13:56] Max Chatnoir: Votes for women was a source of conflict.
[13:56] Al Michigan: yes, we was soo close!
[13:56] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well complete it next time
[13:56] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): on thursday
[13:56] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): :9
[13:56] herman Bergson: So..THANK YOU ALL for your participation....
[13:56] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): bye for now all
[13:56] oola Neruda: rather than killing off the other culture...
[13:56] herman Bergson: Great discussion...
[13:56] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ㋡
[13:56] Max Chatnoir: Great to be back in this group!
[13:56] CB Axel: Thank you, Herman. see you all Thursday.
[13:57] herman Bergson: Class dismissed........
[13:57] oola Neruda: putting them on reservations
[13:57] Max Chatnoir: I really enjoyed it.
[13:57] Al Michigan: but see if we decide to do away with the woman concept, we d all be equal. i gues we will be more peaceful then
[13:57] herman Bergson: Good to see you again Max :-)
[13:57] Al Michigan: yeah it was so educatiing, lotsa fun!
[13:57] PearlsOh: You mean like how Israel and Palestine, black and white in USA are at peace, forced integration never works,
[13:57] herman Bergson: My pleasure Al
[13:57] Belle (bellecharbon): The major conflicts are among nations and leaders, people from most cultures get along because it is in their best interest to get along and people at the ground level are mostly nice.
[13:57] Al Michigan: indeed pearls! how will we integrate the ''cultures'' of our ''guests''
[13:58] herman Bergson: So true Belle
[13:58] PearlsOh: yeh, good too be free to speak a bit, thank you Herman for hosting.
[13:58] herman Bergson: Why shouldn't you be free to speak. PearlsOh...
[13:58] Al Michigan: how am i supposed to wear grass skirts, covered in ashes to see me kids get cicumsized in a weird culture that i am forced to ah well
[13:58] Max Chatnoir: I have office hours coming up. :-) But this was a great break!
[13:59] herman Bergson grins @ al
[13:59] Max Chatnoir: Thanks for keeping this going, Herman.
[13:59] Al Michigan: hug, herman
[13:59] herman Bergson: More than ten years now, Max
[13:59] Max Chatnoir: Laudable!
[13:59] bergfrau Apfelbaum: Thank you Herman and class!
[13:59] Max Chatnoir: See you all soon, I hope.
[13:59] Al Michigan: thanks for the classes!
[13:59] Al Michigan: bye, all!
[13:59] herman Bergson: My pleasure Al
[14:00] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): have a goodnight all
[14:00] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): weltrusten Bergie en Herman
[14:00] Belle (bellecharbon): thank you for this day
[14:00] herman Bergson: Night Beertje :-)
[14:00] Belle (bellecharbon): bonjour
[14:00] oola Neruda: baieee all