Friday, April 16, 2021

917: Into History....

 From the time homo sapiens became the dominant species, which manifested itself in cave paintings, the history of knowledge began.

  

In the previous lecture we learned how the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer changed the life of homo sapiens forever.

  

Maybe the greatest impact had the emergence of private property. and thence all its consequences.

  

The transition from what we call Prehistory to the period that we are used to call Antiquity, coincides with the transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age. 

   

The invention of writing and script is usually taken as a turning point. 

  

However, this invention takes place at different moments in different regions. In Mesopotamia around 3200 BC., 

  

In Egypt around 3000 BC., in China around 1200 BC. and in Central America between 1000 and 600 BC. 

  

We split Antiquity in two periods: early antiquity, from 3000 to 600 BC, in which the search for patterns is central, 

  

and classical antiquity, from 600 BC. up to 500 AD, in which the search for principles is central. 

   

Maybe you remember, who stood around 600 BC on the doorstep to the new era: Thales of Miletus (c. 624  – c. 548 BC),

  

the first known Greek mathematician, astronomer and pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor.

   

Thales is recognized for breaking from the use of mythology to explain the world and the universe, and instead 

  

explaining natural objects and phenomena by naturalistic theories and hypotheses, in a precursor to modern science. 

   

In early antiquity, Mesopotamia, especially the Kingdom of Babylonia, is the region with the most attention to systematic knowledge. 

   

The first Mesopotamia civilizations already used from 3200 BC.on the cuneiform for administrative purposes. 

   

The script is named for the characteristic wedge-shaped impressions (Latin: cuneus) which form its signs. It developed and distributed quickly and around 2700 BC.

  

 it was used throughout the region for recording agreements, contracts and treaties on clay tablets by specially trained clogs. 

  

If you focus on the emergence and development of cuneiform, you can get an idea of how important private property must have been for early homo sapiens.

    

He even developed an administrative system for the registration of his increasing mountain of property in grain and cattle, which he was probably collecting.


From approximately 2600 BC. laws, dictionaries, sky observations, astrological signs, chronicles,  weather observations, mathematical calculations and medical diagnoses were also recorded on clay tablets. 


Thus emerged, what we can call the first knowledge disciplines. Is it also the period in which greed and social inequality emerged......?

    

Thank you for your attention again....


  

MacMillan The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2nd edition
Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1995
 http://plato.stanford.edu/contents.htm
Rens Bod: "Een Wereld vol Patronen".  2019

The Discussion


[13:19] herman Bergson: My idea is that private property, the need for security and greed are a nice combination psychologically

[13:19] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): Thank you Herman

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well thats for sure

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): nice i don't know though

[13:20] CB Axel: I think hunter-gatherers could be greedy, too.

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well sure i have my own things

[13:20] CB Axel: They could block others from the best plants.

[13:21] CB Axel: They could collect food and hide it from others.

[13:21] herman Bergson: Sharing their game seems to me more common for them CB

[13:21] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): I guess

[13:21] CB Axel: Private property is just an extension of that.

[13:21] CB Axel: I'm sure there were as many greedy people then as there are now.

[13:21] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): sharing only with the group they belong to

[13:21] CB Axel: We just reward them now.

[13:22] herman Bergson: true

[13:22] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ah

[13:23] herman Bergson: I wonder where this greed comes from psychologically....the unwillingness to share

[13:23] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hmm

[13:23] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): fear

[13:24] herman Bergson: fear...yes...an important human drive

[13:24] CB Axel: Hunger and the desire to prevent hunger?

[13:24] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): the fear of starvation

[13:24] herman Bergson: snd thence the fear of starvation...yes

[13:25] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and nowadays the fear of being out of toilet paper

[13:25] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): lol

[13:25] oola Neruda: the young students in a rough neighborhood in Chicago as the teacher one question over and over...every year.....

[13:25] herman Bergson: ^_^

[13:25] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): at leat THAT hoarding have stopped!

[13:25] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): for now

[13:25] oola Neruda: is it ok to steal food if you are hungry?

[13:25] herman Bergson: a real question, oola

[13:26] oola Neruda: to them it IS

[13:26] herman Bergson: if the hunger is caused by greedy behavior of others.........

[13:26] oola Neruda: but you can see how they feel about it...

[13:27] herman Bergson: if the hunger is caused because they don't get any change to earn a decent wage....

[13:27] oola Neruda: yes

[13:27] oola Neruda: that is the reason

[13:27] herman Bergson: because they are discriminated for instance

[13:27] oola Neruda: or parents cannot get a decent paying job

[13:27] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well if it wasn't for money everyone could have a decent meal i guess, like in Africa where many starve

[13:27] oola Neruda: or might be in jail

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): however food production in general might be an issue

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but money cause more harm then good for sure

[13:28] oola Neruda: they end up living in what is called a food desert

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and we all need food to live

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): all life needs nutrition

[13:29] oola Neruda: grocery stores do not open near them... rough neighborhoods

[13:29] herman Bergson: What fascinates me is that you can see that all issues we are facing today started already so early in our history

[13:29] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and water

[13:29] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ah

[13:29] herman Bergson: As Beertje remarked last Tuesday...man  has never changed

[13:30] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): circumstances have changed, not human kind

[13:30] herman Bergson: Maybe that is true in a psychological sense.....

[13:30] herman Bergson: yes...and man is more willing to control his primary instincts in a well organized society

[13:31] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): controlling an primary instinct is veryhard to do

[13:32] oola Neruda: it might be the basis for what we call religion... to make life more equal...

[13:32] herman Bergson: it is what we call civilization today

[13:32] herman Bergson: I'd say that we made some progress there

[13:32] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and civilized people versus savages

[13:32] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): those those terms

[13:33] herman Bergson: We accept Human Rights, well....not everyone but a lot do

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ah

[13:33] CB Axel: I don't see religion as making people more equal.

[13:33] oola Neruda: read the Iliad... by homer...

[13:33] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): the opposite

[13:33] oola Neruda: see what man can really do and be

[13:33] theo Velde is online.

[13:34] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): woman have not many rights in religion

[13:34] oola Neruda: only human.... sigh

[13:34] herman Bergson: it is not just religion.....

[13:35] oola Neruda: right

[13:35] herman Bergson: it is the inclination of homo sapiens to cling to ideologies, which he seess as the solution and answer to his problems and existential questions

[13:36] oola Neruda: or how to control others so they can get what they want

[13:36] herman Bergson: homo sapiens wants ANSWERS......which brings us back to existential fear

[13:37] oola Neruda: and security

[13:37] herman Bergson: Betrand Russell saw as the task of philosophy to learn people to live with the certainty of uncertainty

[13:37] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ah

[13:38] oola Neruda: fight makes might

[13:38] herman Bergson: ideologies offer a pseudo certainty and homo sapiens loves it

[[13:39] herman Bergson: Like Marx said....opium for the people is it

[13:39] oola Neruda: nods

[13:40] herman Bergson: Well....we have a weekend ahead...so I suggest we all get a big joint and have a smoke :-)

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ehhe

[13:41] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): yay

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): PUFF PUFF

[13:41] herman Bergson: And we can dream of all the answers we then see....

[13:41] CB Axel: I wish.

[13:41] bergfrau Apfelbaum: cheers with red wine:-)

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ah

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): I guess

[13:41] CB Axel: I live in a very Republican state. Nothing is legal here.

[13:41] herman Bergson: A good alternative Bergie ^_^

[13:41] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): coffeeshops are closed....

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): mmm yum

[13:42] Lente (lentelies.anatine) is offline.

[13:42] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): we can't buy weet:(

[13:42] herman Bergson: It is sold in other places Beertje...believe me :-)

[13:42] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): yes I know:)))

[13:43] herman Bergson: ok...

[13:43] herman Bergson: Thank you all again today.....for your participation

[13:43] herman Bergson: Class dismissed...

[13:43] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:43] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): thank you Herman

[13:43] oola Neruda: thank you, Herman

[13:44] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): looks for my black plupp)

[13:44] bergfrau Apfelbaum: thank you Herman and class!

[13:44] CB Axel: Thank you, Herman and class.