Friday, July 23, 2021

936: From Mismatch to Match....

What is slowly becoming apparent is the development from initial conceptual models with little predictive power in the form of numerical observations, counts and pragmatic applications 


to more sophisticated, mathematical models of the Greek that approach and ultimately exceed the accuracy of the Babylonian pattern-based models. 


This shows the role the Greeks attributed to theory: their theoretical principles initially arose from preconceived ideas about the world, 


such as the belief that the movements in the firmament could be described on the basis of pure circles and pure numbers.


It is remarkable that the Greeks apparently attached such a value to these in their eyes perfect forms.


When it became clear that these theoretical principles did not fully correspond to empirical reality, 


people also became aware of the existence of a mismatch between principles and patterns, the empirical observations. 


Astronomers such as Hipparchus and Ptolemy were not satisfied with this and demanded that the empirical patterns could be predicted in an 'exact' way by the principles. 


Accuracy is not achievable in empirical science, as we know it today. There is always a measurement error with observations, no matter how accurately we perform them. 


Yet the scientific ideal was put on the map: however compelling theoretical principles may seem, they must be judged on their empirical adequacy. 


However, it is not the case that empirically adequate principles necessarily reflect reality. Principles can have great predictive power and yet be far from reality. 


For example, Ptolemy's model accurately predicts the apparent planetary motions in the sky but does not reflect the actual planetary motions. 


In order to maintain his idea of ​​perfect circular motion, he had to perform mathematical tricks to explain the retrograde motions of heavenly bodies.


Planets do not revolve around the earth in loops but in ellipses around the sun. So just how "principled" were the Greek models? 


Wasn't Greek astronomy previously a runaway exercise to save phenomena at all costs with just pure circles, introducing a new special mathematical rule for every deviation in a planetary motion or brightness? 


The Greeks made a successful attempt to reduce the vast multitude of celestial patterns to a much smaller number of principles. 


What we have thus seen is a process of mismatch to match between principle and pattern-based knowledge in Greek astronomy. 


Although their astronomical predictions were accurate, there was a mismatch between their geocentric model and reality. 


Theoretical principles are initially less accurate than patterns but principles can be modified and extended to possibly match or even exceed the accuracy of the patterns, which is what Ptolemy did.


However, there was not yet an empirical cycle, the method of modern science. The cycle consists of the steps: Observation --> Induction --> Deduction --> Test --> Evaluation. 


In upcoming lectures, we will elaborate on the significance of this cycle as a scientific method. Such a systematic methodology did not yet exist among the Greeks. 


We only know that Hipparchus and Ptolemy wanted their principles to match the observed patterns as closely as possible. 


So in their case, it is better to speak of convergence, or a process from mismatch to match, of principles and patterns, but not of an empirical cycle. 


We can conclude, however, that it could happen that the astronomical theory of Ptolemy did not correspond to reality, but still led to correct predictions. 


Something to keep an eye on, even today. 


Thank you for your attention again....


MacMillan The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2nd edition
Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1995
Rens Bod: "Een Wereld vol Patronen".  2019

The Discussion

 [13:15] Today we finished the Greek maths theme. A good moment to closed down the Philosophy Class for a well deserved summer break...... We'll resume our project Thursday September, enjoy your vacation.. ^_^ and we'll meet again in September..


[13:16] herman Bergson: Of course after discussing the subject of today :-)

[13:16] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): i always miss your lectures during summer

[13:16] oola Neruda: same here

[13:16] herman Bergson: The possible mismatch between theory and reality, though the theory allows correct deductions about observable facts

[13:17] herman Bergson: I am sorry to hear, Beertje, but alas...we need some vacation :-)

[13:18] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): aaa true

[13:18] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): yes I know and the island is calling

[13:18] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): going on vacation now 5th July

[13:18] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): aaa yes

[13:18] herman Bergson: A time to refocus, get new inspiration....:-)

[13:18] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): time to get there finally

[13:18] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ah

[13:19] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and 3D print some more lamps!

[13:19] herman Bergson: But as a conclusion it is interesting to see how the Greek defined our ideals of science....

[13:19] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): or whatever I will do during my vacation but decorating my friends garden house is a prioritized project

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): our BBQ hangout place

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): VERY important!

[13:20] herman Bergson: They didnt have the real methodology yet, but the basis was there

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): summer stuff

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hmm

[13:20] herman Bergson: It is not yet vacation time Bejiita ^_^

[13:21] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): how did it develop from the Greek till now?

[13:21] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well to get the correct picture and results you must have ALL data

[13:21] herman Bergson: Well, Beertje.....look at the empirical cycle....which I mentioned in the lecture

[13:21] Dien (djdien.bailey) is offline.

[13:21] herman Bergson: That is the modern method of science......

[13:22] herman Bergson: It began to develop the moment science freed itself from the joke of the Church....

[13:22] herman Bergson: around 1500.....think of Galilei

[13:23] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): joke?

[13:23] herman Bergson: There is began

[13:23] herman Bergson: juk

[13:23] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): ah:)

[13:23] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): yep

[13:23] herman Bergson: should be spelled  "Yoke"

[13:24] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): i misunderstood:))

[13:24] herman Bergson: otherwise it is a joke ^_^

[13:24] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): :)

[13:24] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): yokes are used in electrical engineering

[13:25] herman Bergson: At least we can conclude that around 1000 BC the human brain was at full steam :-)

[13:25] herman Bergson: for bridging, Bejiita?

[13:25] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): yes¨

[13:26] herman Bergson: Any questions or remarks left?

[13:27] herman Bergson: Or did you all go on vacation already?

[13:27] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): yes i did:)

[13:27] herman Bergson: Well, then it is time to wish yo the most happiest time of the year :-)

[13:28] herman Bergson: And I'' dismiss class to set you all free ^_^

[13:28] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): I feel a bit sad we won't have class until September.

[13:28] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): I have only just begun.

[13:28] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): we all feel that way Marlena

[13:28] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): every year

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but we will return after the vacation!

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:28] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): :)

[13:29] herman Bergson: To be during the beginning of August I also begin to miss class :-)

[13:29] herman Bergson: But for the moment, I love the break :-)

[13:29] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): vacation can be boring....

[13:30] theo Velde is online.

[13:30] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): I wish you a happy vacation, all of you.

[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well u need to fill it with things and stuff

[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:30] herman Bergson: Not for me Beertje...I am already since december 2008 on permanent vacation....not a single day it was boring ^_^

[13:30] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): smiles

[13:31] herman Bergson: Just look at all the project we already have done...

[13:31] bergfrau Apfelbaum: sorry! brb rl

[13:32] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): but on the island...only skies...birds....

[13:32] herman Bergson: And for you MArlena...I understand the disappointment....but...I work in semesters

[13:32] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly) nods.

[13:32] herman Bergson: No dear.....books and beer...:-)

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:33] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): ah ja..i forgot books

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and BEEER

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): yum!

[13:33] herman Bergson: right Bejiita ^_^

[13:33] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): The beach and sun sound beautiful.  Books are important though

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:33] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): Stepehn King?

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:34] herman Bergson: De Heks van Limbricht ...Beertje to begin with

[13:34] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): beach is boring..only water, sand and sun

[13:34] herman Bergson: Then I want to read The World of Sofie in Spanish....

[13:34] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): ah de nieuwste

[13:34] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): i have the wereld van Sofie too

[13:34] herman Bergson: and other Spanish books

[13:34] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): I am often reading Proust, so never get bored with it.

[13:35] herman Bergson: Indeed Marlena.....good choice

[13:35] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): I have read them all once, and now started again

[13:35] herman Bergson: Maybe I'll read Daniel Dennett too

[13:35] herman Bergson: I  have such a long list....

[13:35] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): :))

[13:36] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): I have tried reading Dennett, it proved difficult.

[13:36] herman Bergson: One vacation I read 2500 pages in three weeks

[13:36] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): pfew

[13:36] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): wow thats some!

[13:36] herman Bergson: Yes he isn't an easy fellow MArlena

[13:37] oola Neruda: non-fiction....Talking to Strangers..... important book for the moment

[13:37] herman Bergson: It was when I read the Foundation trilogy of Isaac Asimov.... about 500 pages per tome

[13:38] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): i'm reading  The Stand now...dikke pil

[13:39] bergfrau Apfelbaum: ... back

[13:39] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): wilkommen

[13:39] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): oki

[13:39] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): wb

[13:39] herman Bergson: A also have an you don't see how thick the books are :-)

[13:39] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): And it is easily carried around.

[13:39] herman Bergson: it is :-)

[13:39] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): about 1400 pages

[13:40] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): hard to handle

[13:40] herman Bergson: Yet I love real books

[13:40] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): real books hurt more when u drop them on your foot

[13:40] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): lol

[13:40] herman Bergson: How far did you already get in those 1400 pages Beertje?

[13:40] oola Neruda: Letters to a Young Poet.... Rilke

[13:41] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): smiles..about 300

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ok

[13:41] herman Bergson: not bad...:-)

[13:41] herman Bergson: Have to part from my cello for three weeks, however :-))

[13:41] herman Bergson: Can;t take it with me to the island :-))

[13:42] Marlena Rickettsi (marlenalilly): Oh you are a musician.

[13:42] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): sitting on the beach playing the cello romantic

[13:42] herman Bergson: just an amateur

[13:42] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:42] herman Bergson: not good...sand in my cello, Beertje ^_^

[13:43] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): lol

[13:43] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): lol...

[13:43] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): makes for a gritty sound

[13:43] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):