Thursday, September 16, 2021

940: A most beautiful Example...

 It's a bit of a strange sensation: walking through the supermarket, doing your shopping 

and at the same time thinking about Aristotle (384–322 BC) and his syllogisms. But that was yet the case, because it is the topic of today. 


In his work we see perhaps the best example of how patterns can be reduced to principles, which in turn can serve to generate new patterns. 


Aristotle realized that there are patterns in the way we describe and talk about the world. 


Many descriptive statements have a general form. You see something, for example a swan and you name a atribute of that swan .... it is white, in other words "The swan is white". 


By observations you might come to the conclusion: "All swans are white". Now that may not be true, but you could presuppose it. 


Then you see a bird and see that it is a swan. You close your eyes and you think: "All swans are white, That bird is a swan, so that bird is white". This is a form of reasoning. Aristotle called it a syllogism.


Then you open your eyes and see that the bird is indeed a swan, but black. But you can proof that your reasoning yet was valid.


Look at the diagram; one circle is de set of white birds, and inside that set is a not empty set of swans. A special case is that both circles coincide.


Here we see an interesting discovery. Argumentations can be VALID and thus lead to a VALID conclusion. In this case that the swan is white.


VALID means that you necessarily have to come to a given conclusion based on the arguments.


But the swan shows to be black. Aristotle thus showed that the validity of a reasoning and truth are independent of each other,


but IF the arguments are true AND the reasoning is valid, then it is impossible to deny the conclusion.


Aristotle formulated some basic principles for reasoning.  The first one is the Law of non-contradiction.


That means that a statement can not be true and false at the same time. When "the swan is black" is true, then "The swan is not black" can never be true.


In the United States of today, however, seems this Law no longer in use. The statement "Biden did win the election fairly" 


and "Biden did NOT win the election fairly" are held to be true at the same time.


The second principle is the Law of the excluded third. This means that a statement can only be TRUE or FALSE. There is no third option.


In the United States of today, however, seems this Law no longer in use. The statement "Can you confirm that Biden did win the election fairly",


certain politicians really invented a third option: their default answer is not yes or no. 

Their default answer is: Biden is the president.


There is tons more to tell about Aristotle, his syllogisms and logic, but here I presented you especially the achievement of homo sapiens


to discover patterns and underlying principles in an astonishing way. He understood that these Laws form the conditions to which all valid reasoning and correct evidence are subject.


Thank you for your attention again....


MacMillan The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2nd edition
Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1995
Rens Bod: "Een Wereld vol Patronen".  2019

The Discussion

[13:14] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): Thank you Herman

[13:14] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): its not applying to politics because politics is a cementmixer of dirt throwing and lies to gain and stay in power

[[13:14] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): otherwise its all 100% working

[13:15] herman Bergson: Seems to be the case indeed Bejiita ^_^

[13:15] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): actually that diagram is the very basics of object oriented programming

[13:15] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): white birds is a class, swan is a subclass to that white birds class and inherits all variables and properties from in while adding its own lovcal ones like color.

[13:16] herman Bergson: well, this is not a computer class :-)

[13:16] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): or not color because that is defined in the main class white birds

[13:16] herman Bergson: You are right Bejiita...this is basic set theory in fact

[13:16] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but this is a concept im very familiar with becase of that

[13:17] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but i applies in general to everything

[13:17] herman Bergson: it does

[13:17] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well to all objects (thats why its called OOP in the first place)

[13:17] Rebecca (rebecca.rozen) is online.

[13:18] herman Bergson: I have an other juicy scandal for you

[13:19] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ok

[13:19] herman Bergson: Some wants to say something it seems :-)

[13:19] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): he is writing a novel

[13:19] herman Bergson: The reasoning is thus

[13:19] Somedirtycat Saule: Had to read that a few times. US citizens seems to not understand that they don't elect the President. They elect Electors. Electors can then elect the man in the moon as President

[13:19] Dien (djdien.bailey) is offline.

[13:20] herman Bergson: Correct, Some

[13:20] herman Bergson: The reasoning

[13:20] herman Bergson: 1. All elections are rigged

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): yep

[13:21] Somedirtycat Saule: Yes

[13:21] herman Bergson: 2. Mr. X lost the elections

[13:21] herman Bergson: sorry...correction

[13:21] herman Bergson: 1. All elections you lose are rigged

[13:22] herman Bergson: 2. Mr.  X lost the election

[13:22] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): at least to Mr T

[13:22] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): or X

[13:22] Somedirtycat Saule: MDR

[13:22] herman Bergson: Conclusion 3. The election was riggewd

[13:22] theo Velde is online.

[13:22] herman Bergson: But now....hear this....

[13:22] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): MDR???

[13:23] herman Bergson: Tomorrow is a Recall ellection.... a Rep challanges the incumbent Dem....

[13:23] Somedirtycat Saule: Sorry, stupid gesture was kicked in. MDR is lol in Frensh

[13:23] herman Bergson: TOMORROW....

[13:24] herman Bergson: BUT....when you have a look at the website of the challenger, the Rep, you'll find the story that he lost the election due to voter frsaude....

[13:24] herman Bergson: that they have statistic evidence that there was voter fraude

[13:25] herman Bergson: and PLEASE donate to fight Californian voter fraude....

[13:25] herman Bergson: And this all although the elections not yet have taken place..!!!!!

[13:25] Laila Schuman: gerrymandering is a form of voter fraud

[13:25] herman Bergson: The reasoning I showed you was VALID

[13:26] herman Bergson: But all statements were untrue

[13:26] Somedirtycat Saule: My brain is melting

[13:26] herman Bergson: they even havent voted yet in California....that will happen tomorrow!!!

[13:27] herman Bergson: But the misinformation is already present on the Rep candidate's website

[13:27] Laila Schuman: he has been saying that for days

[13:27] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hmm ok

[13:28] herman Bergson: yes Laila but the site says THAT he has lost and THAT  there WAS fraud....not that there will be

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): as said before, dirt throwing and backtalking

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): the cement mixer rolls on!

[13:28] herman Bergson: Unbelievable

[13:29] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): toward a bigger and bigger mess

[13:29] Laila Schuman: next weekend the Jan 6 people are returning to the scene of the hoop-la in Washington to say that the inprisoned Jan 6 actors are political prisoners and should be admired and released

[13:29] herman Bergson: The premise  "All elections I lose are rigged' has become a truth in all GOPs reasoning about elections

[13:30] herman Bergson: I know Laila...wonder what that will lead to

[13:30] Laila Schuman: unless they win

[13:31] Somedirtycat Saule: Hypernormality

[13:31] herman Bergson: yes Laila.....I won the election, conclusion The electio was not rigged

[13:31] Laila Schuman: if they win then it was an honest election

[13:31] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): sigh

[13:31] herman Bergson: People believe it Some......

[13:31] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): that's the worst part

[13:32] herman Bergson: And that in the country that claims to be the defender of democracy

[13:32] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): indeed

[13:32] Laila Schuman: sad

[13:32] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): then a gigant baby came along

[13:33] herman Bergson: amazing ....

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): CHEATING! ALL WAS RIGGED BUAAAAAH BUAAAAAH!

[13:33] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): they know what democracy is when they lost it

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): (shakes head)

[13:33] Somedirtycat Saule: If people are presented some 'facts' why shouldn't they  believe it

[13:33] herman Bergson: That is the most amazing part of the story, Some

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): because the facts are fake news and the other way around, at least thats what the gigant baby wanted all to believe

[13:34] herman Bergson: The facts don't seem to affect the opinion of certain people

[13:34] Laila Schuman: like the Q Anon guy..... who is wise because he is getting his info from his "self" come back from the future

[13:34] Somedirtycat Saule: It take time and effort to fact check

[13:34] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): now i dont know when biden is president but what happened in Afghanistan can create loads of chaos. Bidens reputation have dropped a lot

[13:34] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): dropped

[13:34] herman Bergson: Not even fact checking changes the opinions, Some.....people have tried

[13:35] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and of course then the gigant babu sees his chance for a comeback

[13:35] herman Bergson: That will be forgotten soon Bejiita...what stays is that he got the soldiers out of that hellhole

[13:35] Somedirtycat Saule: I mean fact checking is a personal thing. If others fact check for you it is just another 'facts'

[13:36] Laila Schuman: the Afghan thin was inisiated by Trump...without details being worked out... probably on purpose

[13:36] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): might be

[13:36] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): i see only the surface of everything, feel really sad for the people there however, human tragedy

[13:36] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but was unavoidable i guess

[13:36] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): they had to pull out

[13:36] Laila Schuman: not the first one

[13:37] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hopeless fight

[13:37] Laila Schuman: Pompeo... however you spell it... is the one who did the interface with the Teleban

[13:38] Laila Schuman: left a lot of things unanswered

[13:38] herman Bergson: As you see, homo sapiens was able to discover the principles of logic and sound reasoning more than 2000  years ago.....

[13:38] Laila Schuman: unprepared for

[13:38] herman Bergson: and it seems that some people have all forgotten about it....:-))

[13:38] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hmm

[13:39] herman Bergson: But, nevertheless it shows what homo sapiens (among other things) is capable of.....

[13:39] herman Bergson: Let's put our hope on that....

[13:40] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): yes

[13:40] Laila Schuman: Trump did not allow a smooth transfer of information from his administration to the current one.... people were told not to let the Biden people know what was going on

[13:40] herman Bergson: Even in Europe we know about that misbehavior, Laila

[13:40] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): as said before, most people are ok, and logical

[13:40] Somedirtycat Saule: Sadly i have to say that the age of democracy is a past thing

[13:40] herman Bergson: Indeed Bejiita...let's finish with that thought today

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): indeed Laila, that story i heard

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): now for some more pluppy logic

[13:41] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:41] Laila Schuman: no accident

[13:41] herman Bergson: I hope you are mistaken, Some, but there is some truth in your words...

[13:42] herman Bergson: So, thank you all again for your participation

[13:42] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hmm whi does it do like this, suddenly closes program

[13:42] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): seems to be some bug

[13:42] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well

[13:42] herman Bergson: Class dismissed....

[13:43] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well nice again

[13:43] bergfrau Apfelbaum: interesting again! Thank you Herman and class

[13:44] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): Thank you :))



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