Tuesday, April 2, 2019

769: Dropping the Bomb....

From 1932, when James Chadwick identified the neutron, nuclear physics had focused primarily on learning two things: 
a better understanding of radioactivity and a better understanding of the structure of the atomic nucleus. 
In 1933, the Joliot - Curie couple had finally done the important work that would bring them the Nobel Prize. 
By bombing medium-heavy elements with polonium alpha particles, they had found a way to make matter radioactive. 
In other words, they could turn one element into another. The crucial particle was the neutron that reacted with the nucleus and forced it to release energy through radioactive decay.
It must have been the state of affairs in those days, that is, war in Europe and the persecution of the Jews,
that made these two friends and physicists, Otto Frisch and Rudolph Peierls, who I mentioned in the previous lecture, come to the conclusion,
that this released energy could cause a huge explosion. They calculated, that for that you only needed about one kilogram of heavy uranium, which would be as large as a golf ball.
By the way, Sir James Chadwick, was a British physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. 
In 1941, he wrote the final draft of the MAUD Report, which inspired the U.S. government to begin serious atomic bomb research efforts.
The report, prepared by a group codenamed the MAUD Committee and set up by the British in spring 1940 
to study the possibility of developing a nuclear weapon, maintained that a sufficiently purified critical mass of uranium-235 could fission even with fast neutrons. 
Up to that point, most physicists did not believe that "nuclear energy" could ever be used, although some did talk about it.
Physics was extremely fascinating, but in particular as a way of explaining nature and not so much because of its possibilities of application.
This was the moment of the famous Manhattan Project, the constructing of the A-bomb, which had its base in Los Alamos.
Because all this nuclear theories were published in magazines like Science, it was public domain knowledge in. those days.
As a consequence the Germans already began working on nuclear physics in 1939. The Russians did the same, 
but stopped their efforts, when it was attacked by Germany. Japan never started nuclear research. It was too expensive.
What else did we inherit from the 20th century? The CTBT !
The 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has brought the era of frequent nuclear testing to an end and has established a strong norm against any kind of nuclear test explosion. 
The treaty has near-universal support with 183 signatories, including the five original nuclear testing states.
The positive observation is, that all countries on this globe except North Korea respect this treaty already for almost 25 years.
So far, the global response to the realization that nuclear weapons are the prelude to the total eradication of humanity,
until a totally characterless and immoral person becomes president of the USA and tweets:
North Korean Leader Kim Jong Un just stated that the "Nuclear Button is on his desk at all times." 
Will someone from his depleted and food starved regime please inform him that I too have a Nuclear Button, but it is a much bigger & more powerful one than his, and my Button works!
Thank you for your attention.....

The Discussion

[13:26] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): at least they have not blown us up yet
[13:26] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but still
[13:26] herman Bergson: Indeed they haven't Bejiita
[13:26] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): well another invention that can be used for both good and bad
[13:26] herman Bergson: But it is totally  irresponsible talk of a president of the US
[13:27] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): thats true
[13:28] herman Bergson: The peculiar thing with homo sapiens is that he is willing to use almost everything in a creative AND destructive way
[13:28] Satisfire: like a child
[13:28] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): very true
[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but well he is also a complete idiot so, when i heard his ranting half a year at least before he became president i thought "what a maniac! they will lock him in an asylum if anything so I can be calm"
[13:28] Satisfire: when playing
[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but he went not into an asylum but into white house
[13:28] herman Bergson: Yes
[13:29] herman Bergson: Children can act like that indeed, Satisfire :-)
[13:29] herman Bergson: Maybe we never really grow up
[13:29] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): thinks it is more the pre teen age
[13:29] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): with manipulation
[13:29] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): Trump is a gigant baby sitting in his sand box wailing about his nukes and wall and throwing sand and mud around at everyone not wanting as he do
[13:29] Satisfire: he is not crazy, just mediocre in a phantasmagoric way, just as people who voted for him
[13:30] herman Bergson: He isnt crazy indeed....
[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): WAAAAH WAAAAH! I WANT MY WALL! WAAAH WAAH!
[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): like that
[13:30] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): sigh
[13:30] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): no not crazy
[13:30] Magda (magda1851) is offline.
[13:30] herman Bergson: That is the scary part actually
[13:30] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): very very true
[13:31] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): also he knows he is an asshole and takes it as a compliment
[13:31] FrannyDJ Dean is offline.
[13:31] CB Axel: Narcissistic personality disorder
[13:31] herman Bergson: So we may hope that KimJongUn  doest start playing with his nuclear explasions again while T is in charge in the US
[13:31] CB Axel: It's a kind of  crazy
[13:31] CB Axel: disassociated from reality
[13:31] CB Axel: I call that crazy
[13:31] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): other frightening situations with people who have the bomb... India and Pakistan
[13:32] CB Axel nods
[13:32] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): and Russia
[13:32] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): oh yes for sure
[13:32] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): Iran too
[13:32] herman Bergson: When you look behind me you see a picture of all nuke owners on this globe
[13:32] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): iran and israel
[13:32] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): hmm
[13:32] Satisfire: CB, maybe its a slight disorder, but not as big as some roman emperors had
[13:33] herman Bergson: No...not Iran, Gemma
[13:33] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): that we know
[13:33] herman Bergson: They were working on it though
[13:33] CB Axel: Roman emperors didn't have nukes
[13:33] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): yes
[13:33] Satisfire: on that i will agree)
[13:33] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): and may resume since trump pulled out of the agreement with them and other allies
[13:34] herman Bergson: yes...another irresponsible action of this man
[13:34] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): oi
[13:34] CB Axel: I don't trut any of those countries. lol
[13:34] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): every day
[13:34] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): something new
[13:34] Satisfire: my button still works - sound like a person with impotence reassuring self
[13:34] CB Axel: *trust
[13:35] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): also true
[13:35] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ah
[13:35] herman Bergson: But nevertheless we may conclude that the Treaty still is in place and is respected
[13:36] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): so far so good
[13:36] herman Bergson: Even tho some countries have nukes
[13:36] herman Bergson: Yes indeed Gemma
[13:36] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): and hopefully will stay that way
[13:36] herman Bergson: Maybe it shows that people realize that unleashing the nukes means total devastation
[13:37] herman Bergson: But the scary thing is that they are used as threats in power struggles between nations....
[13:37] Satisfire: dr strangelove
[13:37] herman Bergson: Nice movie :-)
[13:38] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate) GIGGLES!!
[13:38] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): ...LOL...
[13:38] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): never really saw the whole thing
[13:38] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): parts of it
[13:38] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): on tv
[13:38] Satisfire: maybe u should to complete the topic
[13:38] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): wonders of herman saw The Help
[13:38] herman Bergson: I have seen the movie but that was 40 years or so ago :-)
[13:38] herman Bergson: Not yet, Gemma :-)
[13:39] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): ok
[13:39] herman Bergson: But I will
[13:40] herman Bergson: Only during the COld War period people really were scared of a nuclear war....
[13:40] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): true
[13:40] herman Bergson: these days people seem to have forgotten about all these bombs which still are in store
[13:41] Satisfire: those comics on the wall are such fun thing
[13:41] herman Bergson: That's their purpose, Satisfire....to be funny :-)
[13:42] herman Bergson: Maybe the CTBT  has caused this.....
[13:42] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): yes I think so
[13:42] Vonne (viva.enzo) is online.
[13:42] herman Bergson: Nuclear explosions in North Korea are regarded as an oddity caused by a crazy dictator
[13:43] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): the thing that is also forgotten or brushed aside
[13:43] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): the nuclear waste issue
[13:43] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): every one says out it somewhere else
[13:43] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): where ever that is
[13:43] herman Bergson: Yes, we don't talk about that anymore either
[13:43] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): is an issue!!
[13:43] herman Bergson: apparently no more....????!!!!
[13:44] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate) GIGGLES!!
[13:44] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): ...LOL...
[13:44] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): we will send it to somewhere in space i am afraid
[13:44] herman Bergson: No the topic is Climate change :-)
[13:44] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): some small planet
[13:44] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): or we think NAAA its no danger they are just ranting about it as usual!
[13:44] Satisfire: im from ukraine, and chernobyl problem is still relevant
[13:44] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): they will NEVER set one off
[13:44] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): very
[13:44] herman Bergson: Yes it is Satisfire....and no one talks about it....
[13:45] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): once in a great while it pops up
[13:45] herman Bergson: a documentary on TV now and then....
[13:45] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): yes
[13:45] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): it will take a long time Satisfire
[13:45] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): or NPR
[13:45] Satisfire: someone even wanted to make nuclear garbage bin of it, when it couldn't get worse already
[13:46] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): dump EVERYthING in chernobyl?
[13:46] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): were would they send the bin?
[13:46] Satisfire: no, just some waste
[13:46] Satisfire: they would send it near me
[13:46] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): In Ukraine?
[13:46] Satisfire: hopefully not
[13:47] Satisfire: yes
[13:47] Satisfire: it was just a plan but it was cancelled
[13:47] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): wwo
[13:47] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): but it's russia stuff
[13:47] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): good thing
[13:47] Satisfire: no its ukraine stuff
[13:48] herman Bergson: What we may note here is that we seem to live from popular topic to popular topic in the news....
[13:48] Satisfire: we must be aware of nuclear plant terrorism
[13:48] herman Bergson: after a while it just disappears....
[13:48] CB Axel nods
[13:49] herman Bergson: Chernobyl....nuclear waste....neutron bombs....cruise missiles with nuclear warheads....
[13:49] Satisfire: the talk was pretty real tho
[13:49] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): scary stuff
[13:49] herman Bergson: all forgotten
[13:50] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): so it is a quiet influence on the thinking of the 21st century
[13:50] herman Bergson: Either everything is peaceful for us or we are sitting on a vulcano :-)
[13:50] Satisfire: scary things in the future will be catastrophes on mars colonies
[13:50] Satisfire: when one technical mistake can cause millions of deaths
[13:51] herman Bergson: that is still science fiction Satisfire :-)
[13:51] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): great thought
[13:51] herman Bergson: For now we still believe in Captain Kirk and the enterprise
[13:51] Satisfire: live long and prosper
[13:52] herman Bergson: right....that is the plan
[13:52] Satisfire: amen
[13:52] herman Bergson: and as Gemma said.....so far so good :-)
[13:52] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ah
[13:52] herman Bergson: Time to move on to the next lecture, I'd say :-)
[13:52] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): ah
[13:52] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): ok
[13:52] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): ♥ Thank Youuuuuuuuuu!! ♥
[13:53] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): things to think about
[13:53] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): indeed
[13:53] herman Bergson: unless you still have remarks or questions unanswered
[13:53] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): until next time
[13:53] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): as usual Gemma:)
[13:53] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): and i am off to host fishing
[13:53] herman Bergson: Class dismissed...
[13:53] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): thank you
[13:53] Gemma (gemma.cleanslate): ♥ Thank Youuuuuuuuuu!! ♥

[13:53] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): :))

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