Tuesday, October 5, 2021

945: The Empirical Cycle......

 What we have seen so far is, that Homo sapiens begins developing systematic knowledge about himself and his world.

  A lot is still embedded in metaphysical or spiritual theories as principles of explanation of phenomena. 


We have to wait till the end of the Middle Ages, that a more empirical approach in science becomes more accepted.


Around 1350 and thereafter, surgery developed as an accepted medical practice in southern Italy. 


The taboo on cutting into people is starting to disappear. This, of course, opens the way to a more empirical approach in medicine.


Conducting experiments, for example, to test a theory or to observe predicted facts was unusual in antiquity. 


They were more based on theories. and the facts just had to adjust. In astronomy, this led to all kinds of extremely complicated ad hoc calculations to predict planet positions. 


The theory was that the sun revolved around the earth and that was it. Observations didn't question the basic viewpoint.


In modern science we talk of the Empirical Cycle, the method of obtaining objective knowledge. 


The first step is to collect data, to collect observations. You try to discover a pattern in the data 


You try to reduce it to a principle (induction) and on the basis of this principle you formulate a hypothesis. 


You derive new facts and observations from the hypothesis (deduction). The next step is to test whether your prediction also matches what you observe in reality. 


You subject these observations to an evaluation and then the cycle starts all over again.


For us this is the most natural thing in the world, but even in our time it is not always the case. 


The hypothesis that homo sapiens is a species of the genus primates and nothing else still sometimes encounters objections from people


who think from a metaphysical or spiritual theory from the principle: the theory is true, now let's adjust the facts to it. There are even people who are convinced that the earth is flat.


The Empirical Cycle is the principle on which the science of today is based. but Homo sapiens had to learn it first. 


He had to learn to distance himself from all kinds of beliefs and to put empirical observation as the beginning point of knowledge acquisition in the first place.


The invention of the Empirical Cycle has been attributed to the natural sciences since the nineteenth century. 


Moreover, it is assumed that the empirical cycle is a Western invention. There has certainly been a Scientific Revolution in Europe, the complex transformation in European thinking, 


whereby classical religious ideas give way to modern scientific ideas, but whether the cycle is a European invention remains to be seen.


Thank you for your attention again.....

MacMillan The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2nd edition
Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1995
Rens Bod: "Een Wereld vol Patronen".  2019

The Discussion

[13:15] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): Thank you Herman

[13:16] herman Bergson: Due to the scientific method knowledge acquisition in Europe will speed up enormously

[13:17] herman Bergson: we live in a time of super fast changes and growth of knowledge

[13:17] herman Bergson: while 40.000 year homo sapiens hardly expierenced any chnges for millenia

[13:17] oola Neruda: I am discouraged when I see people simply ignoring facts that science has proven

[13:18] oola Neruda: like vaccines

[13:18] herman Bergson: since the invention of fake news and the idea that science is just only another opinion, you see that a lot oola :-(

[13:18] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): true

[13:19] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): yes

[13:19] oola Neruda: indeed

[13:19] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): big problem

[13:19] herman Bergson: it is indeed

[13:19] herman Bergson: People begin to create their own realities

[13:19] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): complot thinking

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): yep

[13:20] oola Neruda: smiles at some scientists i know who pay attention to facts.... working on excellorators.... so wearing a small "geiger counter" type apparatus on their fly

[13:20] herman Bergson: that is really the weirdest of all Beertje

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): ignoring everyone else

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): Im right! NOONE else!

[13:20] herman Bergson: Very important oola

[13:20] oola Neruda: indeed

[13:20] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): Aliens are gonna take us if we take that vaccine, there are tracking chips in it!

[13:21] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): like that

[13:21] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): just a small couple of people who yell hard

[13:21] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): (sighs)

[13:21] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): yep

[13:21] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): but they sure make a mess

[13:21] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): and they yell a lot

[13:21] oola Neruda: and the numbers go down as they died from their beliefs

[13:22] herman Bergson: It is hard to witness how people almost destroy what homo sapiens has built in the past millennia

[13:22] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): destroy in the name of relogion?

[13:22] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): religion

[13:22] oola Neruda: or "rights"....

[13:23] oola Neruda: can't tell me what to do

[13:23] herman Bergson: in the name of their own self-rightiousness....

[13:23] oola Neruda: and ignorance

[13:23] herman Bergson: you have your opinion and I have mine and mine it my truth

[13:23] oola Neruda: yes

[13:24] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): problem is that they don't listen to eachother

[13:24] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): nope

[13:24] oola Neruda: or do... whcih can be worse

[13:24] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): well

[13:25] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): listen, realy listen to a person is very hard to do

[13:25] herman Bergson: From 1500 on we'll see people fight for the truth of science.....

[13:25] herman Bergson: but today science is just another opinion

[13:26] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): no it's still a truth in science

[13:26] oola Neruda: follow the money...

[13:26] herman Bergson: for educated people indeed Beertje

[13:26] oola Neruda: on many levels

[13:26] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): so education is very important

[13:27] oola Neruda: nods

[13:27] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): true true

[13:27] herman Bergson: That's what we are saying here for many years time and again :-)

[13:27] herman Bergson: I hope you are a little more educated today :-)

[13:28] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): as always:)

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako):

[13:28] oola Neruda: stirs my frustration

[13:28] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): aaaa

[13:28] herman Bergson: I understand oola

[13:28] oola Neruda: thank you

[13:29] herman Bergson: I think in the US it is a real problem

[13:29] oola Neruda: YESSSSSS

[13:29] herman Bergson: people believing the craziest things

[13:29] oola Neruda: nods

[13:29] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): what is the cause of this?

[13:29] oola Neruda: greed for one

[13:29] herman Bergson: Good question Beertje

[13:30] herman Bergson: Maybe there is another answer oola.....

[13:30] herman Bergson: In the US you see that in extremo....

[13:30] herman Bergson: The great danger of today is EMPTINESS

[13:30] oola Neruda: taking advantage of the situation... desperate people with bad information... pay for anything that will keep them going

[13:31] oola Neruda: and people who are greedy

[13:31] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): lack of interest?

[13:31] herman Bergson: in Europe for instance....people have lost the binding experience of religions or political ideologies...

[13:31] herman Bergson: and they want to fill this emptiness to find a meaning of life

[13:32] oola Neruda: here too

[13:32] herman Bergson: In the US one part clings to the most idiotic religious movements.....

[13:32] oola Neruda: or none at all

[13:32] herman Bergson: Or they create their own bubble by believing in Q

[13:33] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): Q

[13:33] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): ?

[13:33] herman Bergson: Qanon

[13:33] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): ok

[13:33] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): yes not the Star trek Q

[13:33] herman Bergson: It gives meaning to life....

[13:33] oola Neruda: well, Q gets his imfo from his future self who comes back and brings his wisdom to his current self

[13:33] herman Bergson: Right, Bejiita ^_^

[13:33] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): maybe they are tired of war and poverty too

[13:34] oola Neruda: I believe you are right Beertje....

[13:34] herman Bergson: I think in Europe we have lost the feeling of social solidarity

[13:35] herman Bergson: the belief of the 50s and 70s

[13:35] herman Bergson: sorry ...60s

[13:35] oola Neruda: tired of it but access to remedy is out of reach

[13:35] oola Neruda: reach

[13:36] herman Bergson: and that is due to 50 years of dominant neo-liberalism

[13:36] oola Neruda: for many reasons

[13:36] oola Neruda: where, Herman.... worldwide or locally

[13:36] herman Bergson: and the individualistic emphasis on merits.....on the meritocracy.....

[13:36] herman Bergson: at least in Europe, oola

[13:37] herman Bergson: When you are rich it is your well deserved reward for all your efforts in life

[13:37] oola Neruda: in this day and age... i think it even spills over to third world people

[13:38] herman Bergson: when you are poor.....that is your own fault...so...goodbye

[13:38] oola Neruda: yes,,,, heard that all my life

[13:38] herman Bergson: I think this is a worldwide attitude

[13:38] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): so they say but that isn't always true

[13:38] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): your human value is = to how much money you have

[13:38] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): sad reality

[13:38] oola Neruda: agree

[13:38] herman Bergson: It issn't true at all Beertje

[13:39] herman Bergson: But it is a basic principle of neo-liberal politics

[13:39] oola Neruda: nods

[13:39] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): there will be more poverty in the near future

[13:39] oola Neruda: yes

[13:40] herman Bergson: the gap between rich and poor is widening for years now

[13:40] Darks Adria is online.

[13:40] oola Neruda: and climate change will figure in like never before

[13:40] herman Bergson: also in a wealthy country like the Netherlands

[13:40] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): yes, we have lot silence poverty as they call it

[13:41] herman Bergson: Climate change is too abstract

[13:41] oola Neruda: perhaps to some.... but farmers are catching on...

[13:41] herman Bergson: ok...some hot summers....some heavy rains.....people think they are incidents mainly

[13:41] oola Neruda: most... probably...

[13:42] oola Neruda: but the ones who live through it....

[13:42] oola Neruda: they are figuring it out

[13:42] oola Neruda: oooooh.... it must be true

[13:42] oola Neruda: fires, floods, tornados...

[13:42] herman Bergson: You have to experience it on a permanent basis, yes....that educates

[13:42] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): than it's too ;ate

[13:42] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): late

[13:43] oola Neruda: it has begun... ask the people whose trees are burning

[13:43] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): prevention is much better

[13:43] herman Bergson: I have no idea if it isn't already too late Beertje

[13:43] oola Neruda: taking the landscape and everything in it

[13:43] oola Neruda: the aquafurs are drying up

[[13:44] herman Bergson: just watch this to end our discussion :-)

[13:44] oola Neruda: California's water level in the ground has dropped drastically... they even asked Chicago to somehow get water from Late Michigan to California

[[13:45] oola Neruda: i have to create a new account to get the page to open

[13:45] .: Beertje :. (beertje.beaumont): i'll watch that later

[13:45] herman Bergson: I see....let me find an  alternative

[13:46] Lukkie Sands: It is from Youtube...

[13:47] oola Neruda: listens

[13:47] oola Neruda: for more info about what address to find the info

[13:48] Lukkie Sands: It is that standup comedian George ???? Carbin....forgot his last name

[13:49] herman Bergson: George  Carlin

[13:50] herman Bergson: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7W33HRc1A6c

[13:50] herman Bergson: watch this :-))

[13:51] Particle Physicist Bejiita (bejiita.imako): there we go

[13:53] herman Bergson: Class dismissed :-)

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